To find health promoting relationships, most researchers looked at what we usually drink and eat. This helps them determine what part of our day to day activity and lifestyle influenced the significant factors of longevity, disease, and aging among humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published the findings of the researchers of the Mediterranean diet in 1995. Led by the Harvard School of Public Health, a group of epidemiologists studied the low rates of chronic diseases of the people living in the Mediterranean. Researchers attributed the excellent health and long life expectancies of the population to high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains with low consumption of animal products, saturated, and hydrogenated fats.
After 70 years of research, some patterns emerged about cellular signalling pathways informing the body to change stress responses and metabolic parameters to a different set point. The exact signalling involved the action of the sirtuins that leads to the activation of signalling molecules as well as changes in the secretion status of the neuroendocrine hormones such as the insulin, IGF, or ILPs. The alteration results in a systemic programming of the physiology, metabolic states, stress response, and detoxification response leading to longevity extension. There has been a growing interest in resveratrol for disease management, anti aging, and life extension. It has been shown to affect a large number of molecular targets, especially the processes of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, signal transduction, and inflammation.
The effects and benefits of using the power antioxidant resveratrol
Resveratrol is a very valuable find because of its demonstrated potency acting as an antioxidant and as a polyphenolic flavonoid. The fact that it can be easily extracted from grapes or derived from red wine, makes it cost effective in enhancing the health and well-being of the human population, which includes longevity. The concentration is highest in the skins and seeds of the grapes, blueberries, and in over 70 other species of plants. Below are the effects and benefits of resveratrol largely depending on the time and dose
- The focus of a lot of research about resveratrol is its ability to activate the sirtuins or SIRT1. Resveratrol acts to modulate the function of a number of enzymes and receptors including transcription factors. This non-toxic compound modulates a variety of genes such as the cell cycle genes, inflammatory markers, angiogenic genes, metastasis regulatory genes, senescence genes, transcription factors, anti-apoptotic genes, protein kinases, ROS scavengers, and other genes or proteins.
- This natural compound belongs to the phytoestrogen class and has the ability to reduce skin tumors by 98% through systemic administration, which makes resveratrol inhibits the growth of tumors and angiogenesis, prostate cancer cells, lower endothelial growth factor, activate SIRT1, and inhibit the Survivin expression. The compound’s ability to significantly reduce the level of environmental carcinogens in the body, downregulate the cell cycle proteins, inhibit angiogenesis and metastasis, and increase the apoptosis of the tumor cells could be attributed to its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.
- Resveratrol limits the accumulation of cholesterol by human macrophages, reduce insulin secretion, stimulate glucose uptake, and delay insulin resistance. It can ameliorate oxidative stress and kidney dysfunction as well as prevent diabetes.
- Resveratrol dietary health supplement demonstrates anti-osteoporotic effects comparable to the effects of the hormone replacement therapy. Its effects in the bone are comparable to the FOXO activation.
- Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effects dampen inflammation in arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis.
- The activation of the SIRT1 makes resveratrol promote neuronal survival by protecting the brain against axonal damage and preventing the onset of neurological disorders such as the Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease, and the Huntingtons disease. The effects are quite evident in the improvement of the motor coordination and traction force, which inhibits cognitive deterioration.
- In the organ systems, the resveratrol reduces inflammation in the liver, reduces cytokine production, increases the vascular permeability, protect hearing loss, provides analgesic effects, and inhibits spinal cord trauma. It protects the lungs, intestine, and colon from the harmful effects of toxins and free radicals.
- Resveratrol has the ability to help reduce and maintain body weight and creates resistance to diet-induced obesity by enhancing the mitochondrial function, energy balance, and mitochondrial biogenesis including consistent muscle performance. Fasting and the energy sensing enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization including the regulation of the glucose and lipid metabolism.
Anti aging benefits
The molecular level effects of the resveratrol have been demonstrated by the increase of lifespan of all the species tested during the experiment. Through SIRT1 activation, resveratrol increases the survival of the cells, delay apoptosis, promote genomic stability, delay aging, influence the quality of the stem cells, and allow the cells more time to repair any damages. About 375ml of red wine equivalent to 2 glasses provides peak serum concentration after 2 weeks. Ingestion of pharmacologically relevant dose is seen at 100 mg/kg per day because the human tissues accumulate resveratrol. It is noteworthy to know that the resveratrol compound works in synergy with quercetin, ethanol, Vitamin E, and the catechins. In pure form, resveratrol is safe at doses up to 300 mg/kg of body weight.
Dose and metabolism action of resveratrol
Beneficial effects were seen from 0.1 to 1500 mg/kg of body weight, demonstrate a half life of 8 to 14 min, and is absorbed rapidly by the body. The gut absorbs at least 70% of a 25 mg dose. Resveratrol works in a time and dose dependent fashion.
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